arbitrage opportunities

In simple terms, arbitrage involves the purchase and sale of an asset in order to profit from price fluctuations – basically, it’s a way to gain money out of market inefficiencies. For the purpose of valuing the price of a bond, its cash flows can each be thought of as packets of incremental cash flows with a large packet upon maturity, being the principal. “Everyone tried to run for the door at the same time” said one head dealer, describing trading in recent weeks. They are often performed with the use of complex financial instruments, such as derivative contracts and other forms of synthetic instruments, to find equivalent assets. The risk is that the deal "breaks" and the spread massively widens. Arbitrage has the effect of causing prices of the same or very similar assets in different markets to converge.

[8][9] The arbitrage manifests itself in the form of a relatively cheap longer maturity municipal bond, which is a municipal bond that yields significantly more than 65% of a corresponding taxable corporate bond. Market Cap $369,549,142,111. The prices of the bonds in t1 move closer together to finally become the same at tT. Since the inefficiency is related to government tax policy, and hence is structural in nature, it has not been arbitraged away. Let’s assume that JPMorgan bought 273,000 tons heating oil in the spot market in June 2009 and entered an appropriately sized short heating oil future. The relative value trades may be between different issuers, different bonds issued by the same entity, or capital structure trades referencing the same asset (in the case of revenue bonds). The bet in a merger arbitrage is that such a spread will eventually be zero, if and when the takeover is completed. = According to this condition, the risk-free rate should be between the two possible returns that one can obtain from holding the “risky” asset, B(t, T). The bet in this municipal bond arbitrage is that, over a longer period of time, two similar instruments—municipal bonds and interest rate swaps—will correlate with each other; they are both very high quality credits, have the same maturity and are denominated in the same currency. TWAP-the time weighted average price of a cryptocurrency. Often rules are introduced to prevent individuals from gaining access to non-public information, to dissuade from using important pricing information for personal profit. The steeper slope of the municipal yield curve allows participants to collect more after-tax income from the municipal bond portfolio than is spent on the interest rate swap; the carry is greater than the hedge expense. Finally, the cash received from the short position generates rStCsΔ dollars interest every time period Δ. However, there is a close connection between Ci and options of the same series that differ only in their strikes. This is a simplified model because interest rates may fluctuate in the future, which in turn affects the yield on the bond. Regulatory arbitrage can result in parts of entire businesses being unregulated as a result of the arbitrage. However, a private investor is not able to meet with top managers or with owners of large companies.

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