concrete 2004

British masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in 1824.
Mayan concrete at the ruins of Uxmal is referenced in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatán by John L. Stephens. To mitigate these effects, post-cooling[87] is commonly applied during construction. [13] Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures. The ingredients affect the strengths of the material.

[30] Aspdin chose the name for its similarity to Portland stone, which was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. Pervious concrete is a mix of specially graded coarse aggregate, cement, water and little-to-no fine aggregates.

They kept the cisterns secret as these enabled the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert. Concrete is sometimes used as a fire protection for steel frames, for the same effect as above. Hydration involves many reactions, often occurring at the same time. [7], Concrete is distinct from mortar. http:\/\/\/authorities\/subjects\/sh85030647> ; http:\/\/\/authorities\/subjects\/sh2010105284>, http:\/\/\/vocabulary\/countries\/dcu>, http:\/\/\/content\/g64l41820785\/?p>, http:\/\/\/isbn\/9780309094900>, http:\/\/\/oclc\/988945532>, http:\/\/\/title\/-\/oclc\/57686291>. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and shrinks as it matures. « Château de Chazelet » [archive], notice no PA00097319, base Mérimée, ministère français de la Culture. Temperature stays below 50 ˚F (10 °C) for more than one-half of any 24-hour period. An early example at Hoover Dam used a network of pipes between vertical concrete placements to circulate cooling water during the curing process to avoid damaging overheating. Upon curing, this placement allows the 50,180-square-foot (4,662 m2) cofferdam to be dewatered approximately 26 feet (7.9 m) below sea level to allow the construction of the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Sill & Monolith Project to be completed in the dry.[120].
Care must also be taken to avoid freezing or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement. Options for non-combustible construction include floors, ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-place and hollow-core precast concrete. This creates a horizontal plane of weakness called a cold joint between the two batches. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. Even complex and efficient kilns require 3.3 to 3.6 gigajoules of energy to produce a ton of clinker and then grind it into cement.

She died later that day from shock. [26], After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was greatly reduced.

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